Short Communication
Short Communication
New record of Chaetophiloscia hastata Verhoeff, 1928 for Georgia (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Philosciidae)
expand article infoLado Shavadze, Shalva Barjadze, Stefano Taiti§|
‡ Institute of Zoology, Tbilisi, Georgia
§ Museo di Storia Naturale dell’Università di Firenze, Sezione di Zoologia “La Specola”, Florence, Italy
| Istituto di Ricerca sugli Ecosistemi Terrestri, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
Open Access


Chaetophiloscia hastata Verhoeff, 1928 is recorded from Saskhori limestone quarry (Mtskheta municipality, eastern Georgia). This is the first confirmed record of the genus and species for the Georgian isopod fauna. The species is fully illustrated to facilitate its identification.

Key words

Malacostraca, terrestrial isopods, Saskhori limestone quarry, Caucasus, eastern Georgia


Caucasian isopod fauna is poorly investigated and only 35 species of Oniscidea in 19 genera and 8 families are recorded from Georgia (Schmalfuss 2003; Kuznetsova and Gongalsky 2012; Khisametdinova and Schmalfuss 2012; Barjadze et al. 2015, 2019; Turbanov et al. 2016; Arsenashvili et al. 2022). To date, no species in the family Philosciidae have been recorded from the country. Recent investigations in the area of the Saskhori limestone quarry (Mtskheta municipality, Georgia) revealed the presence of Chaetophiloscia hastata Verhoeff, 1928 which was already recorded in other Caucasian countries.

Materials and methods

Specimens were sampled using pitfall traps containing formalin and stored in 70% alcohol. Species identification followed the descriptions and figures provided by various authors (Verhoeff 1929; Radu 1959, 1960; Dalens 1973; Schmalfuss 1990; Giurginca and Vănoaica 2002). The species is here illustrated with the aid of a camera lucida mounted on Wild M5 and Wild M20 microscopes. Figures were digitally drawn with the program Microsoft powerpoint 2013, Irfanview and Adobe Photoshop CS6. The specimens examined are deposited in the collections of the Institute of Zoology at Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia (ISUIZ) and the Museum of Natural History, Zoology Section “La Specola”, of the University of Florence, Italy (MZUF).


Class Malacostraca Latreille, 1802

Order Isopoda Latreille, 1817

Suborder Oniscidea Latreille, 1802

Family Philosciidae Kinahan, 1857

Chaetophiloscia Verhoeff, 1908

Type species

Philoscia elongata Dollfus, 1884 by original designation.

Chaetophiloscia hastata Verhoeff, 1928

Chaetophiloscia elongata; Arcangeli 1923: 1, pl. 1 figs 1-5; 1926: 42 (partim).

Chaetophiloscia hastata Verhoeff 1928: 164, figs 80-83; 1929: 133, figs 1-6; 1931a: 551; 1931b: 236; 1933a: 4, 17, 46, 51, 53, 55; 1933b: 108; 1936: 147; 1938: 123, 126, 128, 133, 134; 1939: 10; 1940: 111; 1941: 252, 263; 1943: 23; Arcangeli 1938: 118; Frankenberger 1939: 23, 24, 30; Radu V.V. 1959: 75, fig. 2; Radu V.G. 1960: 271, figs 3-5; 1985: 30, figs 12, 12bis; Vandel 1965a: 821, 828; 1965b: 264; Schmölzer 1965: 154, fig. 621; Karaman 1966: 386; Zangheri 1966: 519; Messner 1967: 23; Strouhal 1968: 311; Shereef 1970: 368; Andreev 1972: 185; 2002: 68; Dalens 1973: 124, figs 1-5; 1974: 308; Paoletti 1988: 521; Schmalfuss 1990: 181, figs 30-34; 1991: 6; 2003: 79; Manicastri and Taiti 1994: 134; Argano et al. 1995: 17; Andreev and Bozarova 2000: 28; Giurginca and Vănoaica 2002: 161, fig. 1; Giurginca and Curcic 2003: 40; Beron et al. 2004: 797; Giurginca et al. 2009: 35; Gongalsky and Kutzetsova 2011: 918; Baini et al. 2011: 138; 2014: 344, 346, 348; Kashani 2014: 77; 2018: 124; Beron 2020: 235; Giurginca 2022: 119, figs 59A, 60.

Material examined

GEORGIA • 1 ♂ (MZUF); eastern Georgia, Mtskheta municipality, Saskhori limestone quarry, trap N4; 41.844023N, 44.524027E; 655 m a.s.l.; 13 Apr. 2022; leg. L. Shavadze & E. Maghradze; 1 ♂ (MZUF); 1 ♀ (IZISU); same as previous; trap N1; 41.846669N, 44.518673E; 657 m a.s.l.; 13 May 2022; leg. N. Modebadze & M. Gogshelidze.


Chaetophiloscia hastata was described by Verhoeff (1929) on specimens from Euxinograd, Bulgaria. In a paper published in 1928, Verhoeff cites the species to distinguish it from C. elongata and gives some distinguishing characters, such as the enlarged male pereopod 1-2 carpus, the extreme elongation of the male pleopod 5 exopod which surpasses the telson. Moreover, he also illustrated the male pleopod 1 endopod and the male pereopod 7 merus. Since these data unequivocally distinguish the species from all the others in the genus, Verhoeff, 1928 should be considered the authorship of the species instead of Verhoeff, 1929.


Slovenia: Istria (Arcangeli 1923); Italy: Veneto (Arcangeli 1938; Paoletti 1988), Marche (Verhoeff 1928), Latium (Verhoeff 1931; Baini et al. 2011, 2014), Emilia Romagna (Arcangeli 1926; Zangheri 1966), Tuscany (Zangheri 1966); San Marino (Verhoeff 1933); Croatia: Cres (Verhoeff 1938; Karaman 1966); Bulgaria: (Verhoeff 1928, 1929; Vandel 1965b; Andreev 1972, 2002); Romania (Radu 1960; Giurginca and Vănoaica 2002; Giurginca and Curcic 2003; Giurginca et al. 2009; Giurginca 2022); Cyprus (Vandel 1965a; Strouhal 1968); Libya: Cyrenaica (Arcangeli 1938); Egypt (Shereef 1970); Greece (Dalens 1973, 1974; Schmalfuss 1990); Turkey (Verhoeff 1941; Schmalfuss 1990); Azerbaijan (Schmalfuss 1990); Russia: Caucasus and Black Sea coast (Verhoeff 1933b; Gongalsky and Kutznetsova 2011); Iraq (Frankenberger 1939); Iran (Kashani 2014). The species was cited also for Palestine by Vandel (1965a) and Strouhal (1968) but the record is doubtful according to Schmalfuss (1990). First record for Georgia.

Table 1.

List of species of Chaetophiloscia with their distributions.

Species Distribution
1 C. almana Verhoeff & Strouhal, 1967 Turkey
2 C. attica (Verhoeff, 1901) Greece
3 C. cellaria (Dollfus, 1884) Spain; France; Channel Is.; Italy; Switzerland; Slovenia; Croatia; Greece; Hungary; Bulgaria; Turkey; Lebanon
4 C. elongata (Dollfus, 1884) Spain; France; Italy; Croatia; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Greece; Bulgaria; Turkey; Israel; Syria; Lebanon; Algeria; Tunisia
5 C. glandulifera Verhoeff, 1908 Italy; Croatia; Bosnia and Herzegovina
6 C. gravosensis (Verhoeff, 1901) Italy; Croatia; Bosnia and Herzegovina
7 C. hadjissarantosi Strouhal, 1938 Greece
8 C. hastata Verhoeff, 1928 Italy; San Marino; Slovenia; Croatia; Bulgaria; Romania; Cyprus; Libya; Greece; Turkey; Russia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Iraq; Iran
9 C. illyrica (Verhoeff, 1901) Croatia
10 C. kinzelbachi Schmalfuss, 1986 Turkey; Syria
11 C. lagoi (Arcangeli, 1934) Greece; Cyprus
12 C. leucadia Strouhal, 1936 Greece
13 C. penteliconensis (Verhoeff, 1901) Greece
14 C. sicula Verhoeff, 1908 Canary Is; Spain; France; Italy; Romania; Greece; Crimea; USA; England
15 C. splitensis Verhoeff, 1930 Croatia
16 C. warburgi Schmalfuss, 1991 Israel
17 C. weisi Schmölzer, 1965 Spain
Figure 1. 

Chaetophiloscia hastata, ♂ from Saskhori limestone quarry, eastern Georgia. A – dorsal view; B – lateral view.

Figure 2. 

Chaetophiloscia hastata , ♂ from Saskhori limestone quarry, eastern Georgia. A – coordinates of noduli laterales; B – cephalon, frontal view; C – telson and left uropod; D – antennula; E – antenna.

Figure 3. 

Chaetophiloscia hastata, ♂ from Saskhori limestone quarry, eastern Georgia. A – right mandible; B – left mandible; C – maxillula; D – maxilla; E – maxilliped.

Figure 4. 

Chaetophiloscia hastata, ♂ from Saskhori limestone quarry, eastern Georgia. A –pereopod 1; B – pereopod 2; C – genital papilla; D – pleopod 1.

Figure 5. 

Chaetophiloscia hastata, ♂ from Saskhori limestone quarry, eastern Georgia. A – pleopod 2; B – pleopod 3 exopod; C – pleopod 4 exopod; D – pleopod 5 exopod.


The genus Chaetophiloscia comprises with certainty 17 species mainly distributed in the countries bordering the Mediterranean and Black Sea (Schmalfuss 2003) (Table 1). Only a few species have been introduced into other parts of the world, e.g., C. sicula Verhoeff, 1908 in USA (Hornung and Szlávecz 2003) and in greenhouses in England (Gregory 2014). Other five species presently included in the genus certainly do not belong to Chaetophiloscia but their re-examination is necessary for placement in a correct genus: C. frontalis Lemos de Castro, 1967 from Brazil, C. gatunensis (Van Name, 1926) from Costa Rica, Panama and supposedly in Brazil, C. grayi Vandel, 1973 from Australia, C. guernei (Dollfus, 1887) from the Azores, and C. starostini Borutzky, 1953 from Tadjikistan (Schmalfuss 2003).

Even if Chaetophiloscia hastata is well characterized from the descriptions and figures given by previous authors, it is fully illustrated here (Figs 15) to provide a comparison with all the other species in the genus. The species is readily distinguishable by the enlarged carpus of the male pereopod 1 (Fig. 4A) and, to a lesser extent, 2, and the extreme elongation of the male pleopod 2 endopod (Fig. 5A) and male pleopod 5 exopod (Fig. 5D). These characters of C. hastata might suggest its inclusion in a distinct genus but all the other characters present in the type-species Chaetophiloscia elongata (Dollfus, 1984) and in the other species of the genus seem to confirm its belonging to the genus Chaetophiloscia. These characters are the position of the noduli laterales (Fig. 2A) with the d/c coordinates showing a maximum on pereonite 4, the cephalon (Fig. 2B) with suprantennal line and no frontal line, the pleon (Fig. 1A, B) narrower than pereon with epimera reduced, the mandibles (Fig. 3A,B) with molar penicil dichotomized, the maxillula (Fig. 3C) with the inner set of teeth apically cleft, and the maxilliped (Fig. 3E) endite without penicil.

In the Caucasus area, Chaetophiloscia hastata was previously recorded only from Azerbaijan by Schmalfuss (1990) and from southern Russia (Abrau Peninsula and Sochi) by Verhoeff (1933) and Gongalsky and Kutznetsova (2011). Furthermore, C. hastata was reported from the Batumi (Georgia) area on April 8, 2022, according to the iNaturalist website ( However, this record should be considered doubtful, because it was determined just based on photos, where the main characters to identify the species cannot be visible. Hence, the Saskhori limestone quarry represents the first confirmed record of both the genus and species for Georgia. Given the high similarity of specimens photographed in Batumi's surroundings to C. hastata, we believe the species may also occur along Georgia's Black Sea coast and may be more widespread throughout the country.


The investigation was supported by the project: “Investigation of soil biodiversity in Saskhori Quarry with participation of local school pupils” funded by the Quarry Life Award, HeidelbergCement, Georgia.


  • Andreev S (1972) Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Landasseln in Bulgarien. II (Isopoda Oniscoidea). Izvestiya na zoologicheskiya Institut Sofiya 34: 177–188 [in Bulgarian].
  • Andreev S (2002) Trois nouvelles espèces des genres Cordioniscus et Trichoniscus (Isopoda: Oniscidea) et nouvelles données sur les isopodes terrestres de la Bulgarie. Historia naturalis bulgarica 15: 55–72.
  • Andreev S, Bozarova F (2000) Type material of Isopoda (Crustacea: Oniscidea, Anthuridae) from the collections of the National Museum of Natural History in Sofia. Historia naturalis bulgarica 11: 25–32.
  • Arcangeli A (1923) Caratteri sessuali secondari e conformazione dell’apparato copulatore di Philoscia elongata Dollf. (= Ph. pulchella B.L.) nel periodo riproduttivo. Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia comparata della Regia Università di Torino 28: 1–7, pl. 1.
  • Arcangeli A (1926) Contributo alla conoscenza della fauna isopodologica delle terre circonstanti all'alto Adriatico. Atti del Museo civico di Storia naturale di Trieste 11: 1-62, 1 pl..
  • Arcangeli A (1938) Philoscia elongata Dollf. e Chaetophiloscia hastata Verh. appartengono alla stessa specie (Crostacei Isopodi terrestri). Dimostrazione sperimentale. Atti della Reale Accademia delle Scienze di Torino 73: 112–124.
  • Argano R, Ferrara F, Guglielmo L, Riggio S, Ruffo S (1995) Checklist delle specie della fauna italiana. 30. Crustacea Malacostraca II, 52 pp.
  • Arsenashvili E, Iankoshvili G, Japarashvili S, Bulbulashvili N, Seropian A (2022) Discovery of Hemilepistus (Hemilepistus) klugii (Brandt, 1833) (Isopoda, Oniscidea) in the Republic of Georgia with an overview of the ecology and biology of the subgenus. Caucasiana 1: 13–16.
  • Baini F, Bologna MA, Taiti S (2011) Woodlice assemblages of planted and native forests in central Italy. Pp. 137-138. In: Zidar P, Štrus J (Eds). Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium of Terrestrial Isopod Biology ISTIB 2011. University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, 164 pp.
  • Baini F, Pitzalis M, Bologna MA, Zapparoli M, Taiti S, Vigna Taglianti A (2014) Assessing patterns of co-occurrence and nestedness of arthropod assemblages in an artificial-natural Mediterranean forest mosaic (Isopoda Oniscidea, Coleoptera Carabidae). Rendiconti Lincei, Scienze Fisiche e Naturali 25: 339–350.
  • Barjadze S, Asanidze Z, Gavashelishvili A, Soto-Adames FN (2019) The hypogean invertebrate fauna of Georgia (Caucasus). Zoology in the Middle East 65: 1–10.
  • Barjadze S, Murvanidze M, Arabuli T, Mumladze L, Pkhakadze V, Djanashvili R, Salakaia M. (2015) Annotated list of invertebrates of the Georgian karst caves. Georgian Academic Book, Tbilisi, Georgia, 120 pp.
  • Beron P (2020) Checklist of Isopoda Oniscidea (Crustacea) of Bulgaria. Ecologica Montenegrina 38: 227–224.
  • Beron P, Petrov B, Stoev P (2004) The Invertebrate Cave Fauna of the Eastern Rhodopes (Bulgaria and Greece). In: Beron P, Popov A (Eds) Biodiversity of Bulgaria. 2. Biodiversity of Eastern Rhodopes (Bulgaria and Greece). Pensoft and National Museum of Natural History, Sofia, 791–822.
  • Dalens H (1973) Notes sur la biologie et la systématique de l’isopode terrestre Chaetophiloscia hastata Verhoeff 1928. Biologia gallo-hellenica 5: 123–129.
  • Dalens H (1974) Phénotype albinos chez l’oniscoide Chaeophiloscia hastata. Bulletin de la Société d’Histoire naturelle de Toulouse 110: 308–310.
  • Frankenberger Z (1939) Sur quelques isopodes de la Mésopotamie. Sbornik entomologického Odděleni národního Musea v Praze 17: 23–31.
  • Giurginca A (2022) Oniscidea of Romania. Editura Transversal, Târgoviște, 240 pp.
  • Giurginca A, Curcic SB (2003) A check-list of Oniscidea (Isopoda, Crustacea) from Dobruja (Romania). Archives of Biological Sciences, Belgrade 55: 39–44.
  • Giurginca A, Nae A, Vănoaica L (2009) Species of Oniscidea and Araneae from the Movile Cave drillings. Travaux de l’Institut de Spéologie “Emile Racovitza” 48: 31–44.
  • Giurginca A, Vănoaica L (2002) Chaetophiloscia sicula Verhoeff, 1908 (Isopoda, Oniscidea: Philosciidae) – a new species for the Romanian fauna. Travaux de l’Institut de Spéologie “Emile Racovitza” 37–38 (1998-1999): 159–166.
  • Gongalsky KB, Kuznetsova DM (2011) Fauna and population of woodlice (Isopoda, Oniscidea) of Abrau Peninsula, North-West Caucasus. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 90: 916–922 [in Russian].
  • Gregory S (2014) Woodlice (Isopoda: Oniscidea) from the Eden Project, Cornwall, with descriptions of species new to Britain and poorly known British species. Bulletin of the British Myriapod and Isopod Group 27: 3–26.
  • Hornung E, Szlávecz K (2003) Establishment of a Mediterranean isopod (Chaetophiloscia sicula Verhoeff, 1908) in a North American temperate forest. Crustaceana Monographs 2: 181–189.
  • Karaman M (1966) Kopnezi izopodi (Isopoda terrestria) Jugoslavije. Zbornik filozofskog Fakulteta u Prištini 3: 371–404.
  • Kashani GM (2014) New records of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda; Oniscidea) from Iran. Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 10: 77–80.
  • Kashani GM (2018) A preliminary checklist of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda; Oniscidea) from Iran. Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 14(2): 123–130.
  • Khisametdinova D, Schmalfuss H (2012) Three new species of Porcellium (Isopoda: Oniscidea) from the Caucasus region. Stuttgarter Beitrage zur Naturkunde, Serie A 5: 103–113.
  • Kuznetsova DM, Gongalsky KB (2012) Cartographic analysis of woodlice fauna of the former USSR. In: Štrus J, Taiti S, Sfenthourakis S (Eds) Advances in Terrestrial Isopod Biology. ZooKeys 176: 1–11.
  • Manicastri C, Taiti S (1994) Gli isopodi terrestri dell‘Appennino umbro-marchigiano (Crustacea, Oniscidea). Biogeographia 17: 125–150.
  • Messner B (1967) Ein Beitrag zur epigäischen Fauna der terrestrischen Isopoden Bulgariens. Bulletin de l’Institut de Zoologie, Sofia, 24: 21–27.
  • Paoletti MG (1988) Soil invertebrates in cultivated and uncultivated soils in North-East Italy. Redia 71: 501–563.
  • Radu VG (1960) Specii de filosciide (Izopode terestre) în fauna Republicii Populare Romîne. Studii şi Cercetări de Biologie, Academia Republicii populare romîne, Filiala Cluj 11: 269–275.
  • Radu VG (1985) Fauna Republicii Socialiste România. Crustacea, vol. 4, fasc. 14, ordinul Isopoda, subordinul Oniscoidea, Crinocheta. Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste Române, Bucureşti, 158 pp.
  • Radu VV (1959) Constituţia morfologica a stomacului la filosciide. Studia Universitatis Babeş-Bolyai, Biologia, 1959: 75–80.
  • Schmalfuss H (1990) Die Landisopoden (Oniscidea) Griechenlands. 11. Beitrag: Gattung Chaetophiloscia (Philosciidae). Revue suisse de Zoologie 97: 169–193.
  • Schmalfuss H (1991) The terrestrial isopod genus Chaetophiloscia (Oniscidea: Philosciidae) in western Asia. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, Serie A 463: 1–9.
  • Schmalfuss H (2003) World catalog of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea). Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, Serie A 654: 1–341.
  • Schmölzer K (1965) Bestimmungsbücher zur Bodenfauna Europas.Ordnung Isopoda (Landasseln). Lieferung 4 and 5: 468 pp.
  • Shereef G (1970) Biological observations on the woodlice (Isopoda) in Egypt. Revue d’Écologie et de Biologie du Sol 7: 367–379.
  • Strouhal H (1968) Die Landisopoden der Insel Zypern. Annalen des naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 72: 299–387.
  • Turbanov IS, Palatov DM, Golovatch SI (2016) The State of the art of biospeleology in Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union: a review of the cave (endogean) invertebrate fauna. 1. Introduction - Crustacea. Entomological Review 96: 926–963.
  • Vandel A (1965a) La faune isopodique de l’île de Chypre. Bulletin du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris), 2e Série 36: 818–830.
  • Vandel A (1965b) Les isopodes terrestres et cavernicoles de la Bulgarie. Annales de Spéléologie 20: 243–270.
  • Verhoeff KW (1928) Über alpenländische und italienische Isopoden. Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik, Ökologie und Geographie der Tiere 56: 93–172.
  • Verhoeff KW (1929) Ueber Isopoden der Balkanhalbinsel, gesammelt von Herrn Dr. I. Buresch. II. Teil. Mitteilungen aus den königlichen naturwissenschaftlichen Instituten in Sofia 2: 129–139.
  • Verhoeff KW (1931a) Über Isopoda terrestria aus Italien. 45. Isopoden-Aufsatz. Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik, Ökologie und Geographie der Tiere 60: 489–572, pls 6-8.
  • Verhoeff KW (1931b) Vergleichend geographisch-ökologische Untersuchungen über die Isopoda terrestria von Deutschland, den Alpenländern und anschließenden Mediterrangebieten. Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere 22: 231–268.
  • Verhoeff KW (1933a) Zur Systematik, Geographie und Ökologie der Isopoda terrestria Italiens und über einige Balkan-Isopoden. Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik, Ökologie und Geographie der Tiere 65: 1–64.
  • Verhoeff KW (1933b) Neue Isopoda terrestria aus Mexiko und dem Mediterrangebiet. Zoologischer Anzeiger 103: 97–119.
  • Verhoeff KW (1936) Studien über Isopoda terrestria. Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 21: 79–163.
  • Verhoeff KW (1938) Zur Kenntnis der Gattung Porcellio und über Isopoda Oniscoidea der Insel Cherso. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, Neue Folge 7: 97–136.
  • Verhoeff KW (1939) Die Isopoda terrestria Kärntens in ihren Beziehungen zu den Nachbarländern und in ihrer Abhängigkeit von den Vorzeiten (67. Isopoden-Aufsatz). Abhandlungen der preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 15: 1–45.
  • Verhoeff KW (1940) Der geographische Charakter der Landisopodenfauna italienischer Mittelmeerinseln und über die Landisopoden der Insel Ischia. Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere 37: 105–125.
  • Verhoeff KW (1941) Über Land-Isopoden aus der Türkei. Istanbul Üniversitesi Fen Fakültesi Mecmuasi, Serı B 4: 223–276.
  • Verhoeff KW (1943) Über Land-Isopoden aus der Türkei. 2. Aufsatz. Istanbul Üniversitesi Fen Fakültesi Mecmuasi, Serı B 8: 1–29.
  • Zangheri P (1966) Repertorio sistematico e topografico della flora e fauna vivente e fossile della Romagna. Vol. II. Memorie del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Verona, Fuori Serie 1: 485–854.
login to comment